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English Lesson – Prepositions

noiembrie 3

ON – prep. atop; as a part of; toward; from
ABOVE – prep. over; higher than; more than
1. a tiny window above the door: OVER, higher (up) than; on top of, atop, on, upon.

2. those above the rank of Colonel: SUPERIOR TO, senior to, over, higher (up) than, more powerful than; in charge of, commanding. must be above suspicion: BEYOND, not liable to, not open to, not vulnerable to, out of reach of; immune to, exempt from.
4. the Chinese valued pearls above gold: MORE THAN, over, before, rather than, in preference to, instead of.
5. an increase above the rate of inflation: GREATER THAN, more than, higher than, exceeding, in excess of, over, over and above, beyond, surpassing, upwards of.

UNDER – prep. below, beneath; less than; controlled by; according to; in the process of; during the period of authority of
1. they hid under a bush: BENEATH, below, underneath.
2. the rent is under £250: LESS THAN, lower than, below.
3. branch managers are under the retail director: SUBORDINATE TO, junior to, inferior to, subservient to, answerable to, responsible to, subject to, controlled by.
4. forty homes are under construction: UNDERGOING, in the process of.
5. the town was under water: FLOODED BY, immersed in, submerged by, sunk in, engulfed by, inundated by.
6. our finances are under pressure: SUBJECT TO, liable to, at the mercy of.

BELOW – prep. under

1.the water rushed below them: BENEATH, under, underneath, further down than, lower than.
2. the sum is below average: LESS THAN, lower than, under, not as much as, smaller than.
3. a captain is below a major: LOWER THAN, under, inferior to, subordinate to, subservient to.

NEXT TO – prep. beside, near, by

NEAR – prep. close to; in the vicinity

1. a hotel near the seafront: CLOSE TO, close by, a short distance from, in the vicinity of, in the neighbourhood of, within reach of, a stone’s throw away from;


AT – prep. in, on, near; indicating time or location; toward

1. expressing location or arrival in a particular place or position.
2. expressing the time when an event takes place.
3. expressing attendance of an educational institution or a workplace.
4. denoting a particular point or segment on a scale. referring to someone’s age.
5. expressing a particular state or condition. expressing a relationship between an individual and a skill.
6. expressing the object or target of a look, shot, action, or plan. expressing an incomplete or attempted action.
7. expressing the means by which something is done.

IN -  prep. into; within; inside; inward

1. she was hiding in a wardrobe: INSIDE, within, in the middle of; surrounded by, enclosed by.
2. he was covered in mud: WITH, by.
3. he put a fruit gum in his mouth: INTO, inside.
4. they met in 1921: DURING, in the course of, over.
5. I’ll see you in half an hour: AFTER, at the end of, following; within, in less than, in under.
6. a tax of ten pence in the pound: TO, per, every, each.

TO – prep. toward; for; in contrast with; in order to

1.expressing direction or position in relation to a location, point, or condition. chiefly Brit. (in telling the time) before (the hour specified).
2.identifying the person or thing affected.
3.identifying a relationship between one person or thing and another. indicating a rate of return: ten miles to the gallon.
4.indicating that two things are attached.
5.governing a phrase expressing someone’s reaction: to her astonishment, he smiled.
6.used to introduce the second element in a comparison.
7.placed before a debit entry in accounting.

FOR – prep. to; in order to; in favor of; about, regarding; because; during, during the span of; in consideration of; on behalf of

1. in favour of.
2.affecting or with regard to.
3.on behalf of or to the benefit of.
4.having as a purpose or function.
5.having as a reason or cause.
6.having as a destination.
7.representing. exchange for. charged as (a price). relation to the expected norm of.
10.indicating the extent of (a distance) or the length of (a period of time).
11.indicating an occasion in a series.


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Business English Lesson 9

octombrie 21

Globalisation - def. (noun) the process by which businesses or other organizations start operating on a global scale.

Traducere – Globalizare

Infrastructure - def. (noun) the basic physical and organizational structures (e.g. buildings, roads, power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.

Traducere – Infrastructură

Issues - def. problems within an organization or company

Traducere – probleme, chestiuni

Profitability - state of producing earnings; state of being financially rewarding; beneficialness, advantageousness

Wikipedia says: Profitability is a technical analysis term used to compare performances of different trading systems or different investments within one system. The following definition was published in the journal Technical Analysis of Stocks & Commodities Magazine:

Profitability = nProfits/nTrades – 1/(1+aveProfit/aveLoss)
This is computed for each system or investment being compared over the same period long enough to include significant “ups” and “downs”. A suitable period is something like the last 5 to 20 years.
Traducere – Profitabilitate

Welfare Benefits – def. financial aid and other assistance provided by government or other agencies to people who are unemployed or in financial need

Traducere – ajutoare sociale

Flight of Capital - def. (n.) (Econmics, Finance) money or securities invested abroad because of the fear of risks or political instability of the holder’s specific counry or because there are higher returns in the country abroad

Traducere – scurgere de capital